Here are three paintings by William Hodges, the expedition painter from Captain Cook’s second Pacific voyage. Each was painted in 1775 or 1776 based on experiences from 1774.

Of interest is that the sailors are generally in shirt sleeves (sometimes rolled up), often without neck cloths. One even appears to be without a shirt (though with a neck cloth). Some do have hats and jackets, but many are bare-headed. The marines, by contrast, and wearing uniforms with coats and hats. Some wear breaches and some wear trousers. The sailors sometimes are holding the muskets for the marines.

Note the sea-going oars (long, thin blades).